By George F. Gilder, Visit Amazon's Ray Kurzweil Page, search results, Learn about Author Central, Ray Kurzweil, , Jay Richards
Pcs have gotten extra strong at an ever-increasing expense, yet will they ever develop into wide awake? synthetic intelligence guru Ray Kurzweil thinks so and explains how we are going to "download" our software program (our minds) and "upgrade" our (our our bodies) to develop into immortal -- ahead of the sunrise of the twenty second century. during this debate along with his critics, together with a number of Discovery Institute Fellows, Kurzweil defends his perspectives and units the degree for the principal query: "What does it suggest to be human?"
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Additional resources for Are We Spiritual Machines?: Ray Kurzweil vs. the Critics of Strong A.I.
Interestingly a similar feeling of the strangeness and chaos of the arrangement of atoms in a protein struck the researchers at Cambridge University after the molecular structure of the first protein, myoglobin, had been determined in 1957 (using the technique of X-ray crystallography). Something of their initial feelings are apparent in Kendrew’s comments at the time (reported by M. Perutz in the European Journal of Biochemistry 8 (1969): 455-466: Perhaps the most remarkable features of the molecule are its complexity and its lack of symmetry.
But this misses the point. , it prints out “I am conscious”—and a good programmer can even program it so that it will carry on a rudimentary argument to the effect that it is conscious. But that has nothing to do with whether or not it really is conscious. Actual human brains cause consciousness by a series of specific neurobiological processes in the brain. What the computer does is a simulation of these processes, a symbolic model of the processes. But the computer simulation of brain processes that produce consciousness stands to real consciousness as the computer simulation of the stomach processes that produce digestion stands to real digestion.
The point of the example is to illustrate the fact that the symbol manipulations alone, even billions of them, are not constitutive of meaning or thought content, conscious or unconscious. To repeat, the syntax of the implemented program is not semantics. Concerning other points in his letter: He says that I am wrong to think that he attributes superior thinking to Deep Blue. But here is what he wrote in response to the charge that Deep Blue just does number crunching and not thinking: “One could say that the opposite is the case, that Deep Blue was indeed thinking through the implications of each move and countermove, and that it was Kasparov who did not have the time to think very much during the tournament” (p.
Are We Spiritual Machines?: Ray Kurzweil vs. the Critics of Strong A.I. by George F. Gilder, Visit Amazon's Ray Kurzweil Page, search results, Learn about Author Central, Ray Kurzweil, , Jay Richards