By Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Mehdi Aminrazavi
Persia is domestic to at least one of the few civilizations on the earth that has had a continuing culture of philosophical notion for over and a part millennia. As Islamic theology constructed within the center a long time, lots of its faculties interacted with latest Persian philosophical currents and advanced right into a unique philosophical 'Kalam', or dogmatic theology. one of the definitive masters of either Shi'i and Sunni theologians have been a number of Persians, leader between them Al-Ghazzali and Fakhr al-Din Al-Razi, who're prominently represented the following. vital choices from either Shi'i and Sunni theological faculties (including Mu'tazila and Ash'ariyya) are integrated within the quantity, lots of that have by no means sooner than been on hand in translation within the West formerly.
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Extra resources for An Anthology of Philosophy in Persia, Volume 3: Philosophical Theology in the Middle Ages and Beyond
That is, the order ‘be’ (kun). Ibn Ḥazm, al-Fiṣal (Cairo, 1321/1903), Part I, pp. 62–67. Madhāhib al-Islāmiyyīn, pp. 162–165. Qurʾān 3:47; 16:40, etc. I read: ikhbār, instead of istikhbār. He also believed that if God wills to generate anything, He generates it by merely ordering it to be; and this is His procedure in bringing back [to life] or destroying anything. However, this view does not entail what the determinists claim: namely, that it would not have been possible for Him to penetrate the imperative ‘be’, without another imperative ‘be’ and so on ad infinitum.
Many of the Muʿtazilites held distinct views of their own but the school also displayed certain features which run throughout its period of development, the most important being insistence upon free will and extensive use of reasoning in religious matters. The detailed history of Muʿtazilism is still unknown, although studies of the past few decades have clarified to some extent the stages of its development. Yet many points still remain debatable, including the name of the movement. The traditional explanation of Wāṣil ibn ʿAṭāʾ, separating himself from Ḥasan al-Baṣrī and Ḥasan’s exclamation ‘Wāṣil has separated himself from us’ (iʿtazala ʿannā), has been doubted by some scholars, especially since members of this school themselves accepted the name muʿtazilah readily and did not see anything pejorative in it.
Ibn Kullāb who was the central figure of the School of Kullābiyyah and Hishām ibn al-Ḥakam, from an extensive list about whom ʿAbd al-Jabbār writes, were also his opponents. From a doctrinal point of view, ʿAbd al-Jabbār was first and foremost a Muʿtazilite who undertook a major and comprehensive attempt to reconcile reason 38 Qāḍī ʿAbd al-Jabbār 39 and revelation. He himself considered his major contribution to be the methodical and systematic treatment of theological issues. His work is in fact a synthesis of Muʿtazilite theology.
An Anthology of Philosophy in Persia, Volume 3: Philosophical Theology in the Middle Ages and Beyond by Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Mehdi Aminrazavi